Warnings Valid at: 28 Sep 2022 07:42 PM CDT
SC
Beach Hazard Statement (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by ILM ()
Coastal Georgetown, Coastal Horry, in SC
VTEC# 40 (NEW)
Issued: 07:41 PM
Updated: 07:41 PM
 
NC
Beach Hazard Statement (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by ILM ()
Coastal New Hanover, Coastal Pender, in NC
VTEC# 40 (NEW)
Issued: 07:41 PM
Updated: 07:41 PM
 
CA
Flood Advisory (View Text) expires 08:30 PM by SGX (JMS)
San Bernardino, San Bernardino, in CA
VTEC# 108 (NEW)
Issued: 07:34 PM
Updated: 07:34 PM
 
AZ
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 10:30 PM by VEF (JA)
Mohave, in AZ
VTEC# 312 (NEW)
Issued: 07:28 PM
Updated: 07:28 PM
 
AZ
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 09:45 PM by TWC (CWR)
Pima, in AZ
VTEC# 163 (NEW)
Issued: 07:17 PM
Updated: 07:17 PM
 
GM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by BRO (52/BSG)
Coastal waters from Baffin Bay to Port Mansfield TX out 20 NM, Coastal waters from Port Mansfield TX to the Rio Grande River out 20 NM, in GM
VTEC# 67 (EXB)
Issued: 07:00 PM
Updated: 03:35 PM
 
PZ
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 11:00 PM by PQR (For more information fro)
Columbia River Bar, in PZ
VTEC# 145 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 PM
Updated: 04:15 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 05:26 PM by MFL (BAXTER)
Glades, in FL
VTEC# 2 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 PM
Updated: 05:26 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 10:45 PM by MLB (CL)
Seminole, Lake, Volusia, Orange, Osceola, Brevard, in FL
VTEC# 16 (NEW)
Issued: 06:59 PM
Updated: 06:59 PM
 
FL
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 09:45 PM by TBW (TBW)
Manatee, Charlotte, Sarasota, Hardee, DeSoto, Highlands, in FL
VTEC# 7 (NEW)
Issued: 06:47 PM
Updated: 06:47 PM
 
FL
Extreme Wind Warning (View Text) expires 08:30 PM by TBW (TBW)
Polk, DeSoto, Hardee, Highlands, Charlotte, in FL
VTEC# 5 (NEW)
Issued: 06:29 PM
Updated: 06:29 PM
 
CA
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 07:45 PM by SGX (RK)
San Bernardino, San Bernardino, Riverside, Riverside, in CA
VTEC# 65 (EXP)
Issued: 06:23 PM
Updated: 07:41 PM
 
AZ
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 09:30 PM by TWC (CWR)
Pima, in AZ
VTEC# 162 (NEW)
Issued: 06:23 PM
Updated: 06:23 PM
 
AZ
Flood Advisory (View Text) expires 09:00 PM by TWC (CWR)
Pima, in AZ
VTEC# 286 (NEW)
Issued: 06:01 PM
Updated: 06:01 PM
 
AN
AN
AN
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 06:00 PM by AKQ ()
Currituck Sound, in AN
VTEC# 87 (EXB)
Issued: 05:27 PM
Updated: 05:27 PM
 
CA
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 11:30 PM by PSR (Hirsch)
Riverside, Riverside, in CA
VTEC# 311 (NEW)
Issued: 05:25 PM
Updated: 05:25 PM
 
AZ
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 11:15 PM by PSR (Hirsch)
Pinal, Maricopa, in AZ
VTEC# 310 (CON)
Issued: 05:10 PM
Updated: 07:14 PM
 
AK
Wind Advisory (View Text) expires 01:00 PM by AFG ()
Deltana and Tanana Flats, in AK
VTEC# 32 (EXA)
Issued: 05:04 PM
Updated: 05:04 PM
 
AN
PZ
Gale Warning (View Text) expires 11:00 AM by MTR (For more information fro)
Coastal Waters from Point Pinos to Point Piedras Blancas California out to 10 nm, in PZ
VTEC# 46 (EXT)
Issued: 05:00 PM
Updated: 02:14 PM
 
AN
AN
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 01:00 PM by LWX ()
Tidal Potomac from Key Bridge to Indian Head MD, in AN
VTEC# 189 (EXB)
Issued: 05:00 PM
Updated: 04:44 PM
 
PZ
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 11:00 PM by MTR (For more information fro)
Coastal Waters from Point Arena to Point Reyes California out to 10 nm, in PZ
VTEC# 227 (CON)
Issued: 05:00 PM
Updated: 02:14 PM
 
PZ
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 11:00 PM by MTR (For more information fro)
San Francisco/San Pablo/Suisun Bays and the West Delta, in PZ
VTEC# 228 (CON)
Issued: 05:00 PM
Updated: 02:14 PM
 
PZ
PZ
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 11:00 PM by MTR (For more information fro)
Monterey Bay, in PZ
VTEC# 229 (CON)
Issued: 05:00 PM
Updated: 02:14 PM
 
CA
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 11:00 PM by PSR (Hirsch)
Riverside, Riverside, in CA
VTEC# 309 (NEW)
Issued: 04:59 PM
Updated: 04:59 PM
 
FL
Flash Flood Warning (View Text) expires 08:00 PM by TBW (TBW)
DeSoto, Charlotte, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Lee, Manatee, in FL
VTEC# 6 (NEW)
Issued: 04:52 PM
Updated: 04:52 PM
 
FL
Coastal Flood Warning (View Text) expires 06:00 AM by KEY (CLR)
Upper Keys in Monroe, Monroe Upper Keys, Monroe Lower Keys, Monroe Middle Keys, in FL
VTEC# 1 (NEW)
Issued: 04:42 PM
Updated: 04:42 PM
 
CA
Flood Advisory (View Text) expires 07:45 PM by VEF (JV)
San Bernardino, San Bernardino, in CA
VTEC# 74 (EXP)
Issued: 04:35 PM
Updated: 07:42 PM
 
GM
AM
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:06 PM by ILM ()
Coastal waters from Cape Fear NC to Little River Inlet SC out 20 nm, Coastal waters from Surf City to Cape Fear NC out 20 nm, in AM
VTEC# 1009 (EXA)
Issued: 04:06 PM
Updated: 04:06 PM
 
NC
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:05 PM by ILM ()
Coastal Pender, Coastal Brunswick, Coastal New Hanover, in NC
VTEC# 1009 (EXA)
Issued: 04:05 PM
Updated: 04:05 PM
 
NV
Lake Wind Advisory (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by REV (For more information fro)
Western Nevada Basin and Range including Pyramid Lake, in NV
VTEC# 39 (NEW)
Issued: 03:00 PM
Updated: 02:11 PM
 
NV
Red Flag Warning (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by REV (http://weather.gov/reno)
Northern Washoe County, in NV
VTEC# 5 (NEW)
Issued: 03:00 PM
Updated: 11:56 AM
 
CA
Red Flag Warning (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by REV (http://weather.gov/reno)
Surprise Valley California, Eastern Lassen County, in CA
VTEC# 5 (NEW)
Issued: 03:00 PM
Updated: 11:56 AM
 
SC
High Surf Advisory (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by CHS ()
Charleston, Coastal Jasper, Coastal Colleton, Beaufort, in SC
VTEC# 4 (CON)
Issued: 02:54 PM
Updated: 07:16 PM
 
GA
High Surf Advisory (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by CHS ()
Coastal Chatham, Coastal Liberty, Coastal Bryan, Coastal McIntosh, in GA
VTEC# 4 (CON)
Issued: 02:54 PM
Updated: 07:16 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
Hillsborough, in FL
VTEC# 12 (CON)
Issued: 02:38 PM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
PZ
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 11:00 PM by MTR (For more information fro)
Coastal Waters from Pigeon Point to Point Pinos California out to 10 nm, in PZ
VTEC# 230 (EXT)
Issued: 02:14 PM
Updated: 02:14 PM
 
GM
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:23 PM by KEY (CLR)
Gulf waters from East Cape Sable to Chokoloskee 20 to 60 NM out and beyond 5 fathoms, in GM
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 01:11 PM
Updated: 04:23 PM
 
GM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by BRO ()
Waters from Port Mansfield TX to the Rio Grande River from 20 to 60 NM, Waters from Baffin Bay to Port Mansfield TX from 20 to 60 NM, in GM
VTEC# 67 (CON)
Issued: 01:00 PM
Updated: 03:35 PM
 
GM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by CRP (87)
Waters from Port Aransas to Matagorda Ship Channel from 20 to 60 NM, Waters from Baffin Bay to Port Aransas from 20 to 60 NM, in GM
VTEC# 70 (CON)
Issued: 01:00 PM
Updated: 03:50 PM
 
FL
Flood Advisory (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by MFL (BAXTER)
Glades, Hendry, Collier, in FL
VTEC# 256 (EXT)
Issued: 12:17 PM
Updated: 05:23 PM
 
GM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by CRP ()
Coastal waters from Baffin Bay to Port Aransas out 20 NM, Coastal waters from Port Aransas to Matagorda Ship Channel out 20 NM, in GM
VTEC# 70 (EXT)
Issued: 12:00 PM
Updated: 03:50 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
Manatee, in FL
VTEC# 14 (CON)
Issued: 11:33 AM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
AM
FL
Hurricane Warning (View Text) expires 04:30 PM by MLB ()
Inland Volusia County, Coastal Volusia County, Orange, Northern Lake County, Southern Lake County, Osceola, Seminole, Okeechobee, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 04:17 PM
Updated: 04:30 PM
 
GA
Rip Currents Statement (View Text) expires 03:00 PM by JAX ()
Coastal Glynn, Coastal Camden, in GA
VTEC# 34 (NEW)
Issued: 10:18 AM
Updated: 10:18 AM
 
SC
Storm Surge Warning (View Text) expires 04:13 PM by CHS ()
Coastal Colleton, Beaufort, Charleston, Coastal Jasper, in SC
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:16 AM
Updated: 04:13 PM
 
GA
Storm Surge Warning (View Text) expires 04:13 PM by CHS ()
Coastal Bryan, Coastal Chatham, Coastal McIntosh, Coastal Liberty, in GA
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:16 AM
Updated: 04:13 PM
 
GA
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:13 PM by CHS ()
Long, Coastal Chatham, Coastal Bryan, Coastal Liberty, Inland Chatham, Inland McIntosh, Inland Bryan, Inland Liberty, Coastal McIntosh, in GA
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:16 PM
Updated: 04:13 PM
 
GA
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:10 PM by JAX ()
Brantley, Inland Glynn, Inland Camden, Wayne, Coastal Glynn, Coastal Camden, in GA
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:13 AM
Updated: 04:10 PM
 
GA
Storm Surge Warning (View Text) expires 04:10 PM by JAX ()
Coastal Glynn, Coastal Camden, in GA
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:11 AM
Updated: 04:10 PM
 
FL
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:10 PM by JAX ()
Nassau, Flagler, St. Johns, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:13 AM
Updated: 04:10 PM
 
AM
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:06 PM by ILM ()
Coastal waters from Little River Inlet to Murrells Inlet SC out 20 nm, Coastal waters from Murrells Inlet to South Santee River SC out 20 nm, in AM
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:04 AM
Updated: 04:06 PM
 
SC
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:05 PM by ILM ()
Coastal Georgetown, Inland Georgetown, Coastal Horry, in SC
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:03 AM
Updated: 04:05 PM
 
MS
AR
Red Flag Warning (View Text) expires 08:00 PM by JAN (CR)
Ashley, Chicot, in AR
VTEC# 3 (CON)
Issued: 09:00 AM
Updated: 04:11 AM
 
LA
Red Flag Warning (View Text) expires 08:00 PM by JAN (CR)
Morehouse, West Carroll, East Carroll, Richland, Madison, Franklin, Catahoula, Tensas, Concordia, in LA
VTEC# 3 (CON)
Issued: 09:00 AM
Updated: 04:11 AM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
Manatee, in FL
VTEC# 10 (CON)
Issued: 07:23 AM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
Hillsborough, in FL
VTEC# 11 (CON)
Issued: 07:18 AM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
SC
Rip Currents Statement (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by CHS ()
Coastal Colleton, Charleston, Beaufort, Coastal Jasper, in SC
VTEC# 6 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 AM
Updated: 07:16 PM
 
PZ
GA
Rip Currents Statement (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by CHS ()
Coastal McIntosh, Coastal Chatham, Coastal Liberty, Coastal Bryan, in GA
VTEC# 6 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 AM
Updated: 07:16 PM
 
GM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 04:00 AM by HGX ()
Coastal waters from High Island to Freeport TX out 20 NM, Coastal waters from Freeport to Matagorda Ship Channel TX out 20 NM, in GM
VTEC# 62 (EXT)
Issued: 05:00 AM
Updated: 03:47 PM
 
GM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 05:00 PM by HGX ()
Waters from High Island to Freeport TX from 20 to 60 NM, Waters from Freeport to Matagorda Ship Channel TX from 20 to 60 NM, in GM
VTEC# 62 (EXT)
Issued: 05:00 AM
Updated: 03:47 PM
 
AK
Wind Advisory (View Text) expires 01:00 PM by AFG ()
Eastern Alaska Range, in AK
VTEC# 32 (CON)
Issued: 03:00 AM
Updated: 05:04 PM
 
FL
Rip Currents Statement (View Text) expires 02:00 AM by TAE (DVD)
Coastal Gulf, Coastal Bay, Coastal Franklin, South Walton, in FL
VTEC# 116 (NEW)
Issued: 01:59 AM
Updated: 01:59 AM
 
AM
SC
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:13 PM by CHS ()
Beaufort, Charleston, Coastal Jasper, Coastal Colleton, Inland Jasper, Tidal Berkeley, Inland Berkeley, in SC
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:16 PM
Updated: 04:13 PM
 
GM
FL
Hurricane Warning (View Text) expires 05:39 PM by MFL ()
Glades, Inland Collier County, Hendry, Coastal Collier County, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 03:59 PM
Updated: 05:39 PM
 
GM
Gale Warning (View Text) expires 03:00 AM by MOB ()
Waters from Destin to Pensacola FL from 20 to 60 NM, Waters from Pensacola FL to Pascagoula MS from 20 to 60 NM, in GM
VTEC# 7 (CON)
Issued: 10:00 PM
Updated: 01:16 PM
 
LA
MS
Wind Advisory (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by LIX ()
Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, Pearl River, in MS
VTEC# 11 (CON)
Issued: 10:00 PM
Updated: 03:13 PM
 
GM
IL
Beach Hazard Statement (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by LOT ()
Lake, in IL
VTEC# 21 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 PM
Updated: 03:38 PM
 
FL
AM
FL
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:04 PM by TAE ()
Coastal Dixie, Coastal Jefferson, Coastal Taylor, Coastal Wakulla, Coastal Franklin, Inland Dixie, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 04:04 PM
Updated: 04:04 PM
 
FL
GM
Hurricane Warning (View Text) expires 04:34 PM by MFL ()
Coastal waters from Chokoloskee to Bonita Beach FL out 20 NM, Waters from Chokoloskee to Bonita Beach FL from 20 to 60 NM, in GM
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:11 PM
Updated: 04:34 PM
 
GM
AM
FL
Storm Surge Warning (View Text) expires 04:49 PM by TBW ()
Coastal Hernando, Coastal Citrus, Coastal Levy, Coastal Pasco, Coastal Charlotte, Coastal Lee, Inland Lee, Pinellas, Coastal Hillsborough, Coastal Manatee, Coastal Sarasota, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 04:10 PM
Updated: 04:49 PM
 
FL
Storm Surge Warning (View Text) expires 04:10 PM by JAX ()
St. Johns, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:13 AM
Updated: 04:10 PM
 
AM
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 10:31 AM by MLB ()
Sebastian Inlet to Jupiter Inlet 20-60 nm, Sebastian Inlet to Jupiter Inlet 0-20 nm, in AM
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 04:55 AM
Updated: 10:31 AM
 
GM
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 05:10 PM by TBW ()
Coastal waters from Tarpon Springs to Suwannee River FL out 20 NM, Waters from Tarpon Springs to Suwannee River FL out 20 to 60 NM, in GM
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 04:18 AM
Updated: 05:10 PM
 
GM
FL
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:49 PM by TBW ()
Coastal Hernando, Inland Levy, Coastal Citrus, Inland Citrus, Sumter, Inland Hernando, Coastal Levy, Coastal Pasco, Inland Pasco, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 04:08 AM
Updated: 04:49 PM
 
GM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by LIX ()
Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Maurepas, Lake Borgne, in GM
VTEC# 39 (EXT)
Issued: 01:00 AM
Updated: 03:10 PM
 
GM
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
DeSoto, in FL
VTEC# 9 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 PM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
PZ
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 05:00 AM by LOX ()
Point Piedras Blancas to Point Sal from 10 to 60 NM out, in PZ
VTEC# 154 (CON)
Issued: 05:00 PM
Updated: 04:10 PM
 
FL
Storm Surge Warning (View Text) expires 05:39 PM by MFL ()
Mainland Monroe, Coastal Collier County, in FL
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 04:04 PM
Updated: 05:39 PM
 
IN
Beach Hazard Statement (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by LOT ()
Lake, Porter, in IN
VTEC# 21 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 AM
Updated: 03:38 PM
 
CA
Heat Advisory (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by SGX (CO)
San Diego County Coastal Areas, Santa Ana Mountains and Foothills, San Diego County Valleys, in CA
VTEC# 8 (CON)
Issued: 12:00 PM
Updated: 12:13 PM
 
CA
Excessive Heat Warning (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by LOX ()
Los Angeles County San Gabriel Valley, Santa Clarita Valley, Los Angeles County San Fernando Valley, in CA
VTEC# 7 (CON)
Issued: 12:00 PM
Updated: 07:30 PM
 
CA
Excessive Heat Warning (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by SGX (CO)
San Bernardino and Riverside County Valleys -The Inland Empire, Napa County, Coachella Valley, San Diego County Deserts, in CA
VTEC# 6 (CON)
Issued: 01:00 PM
Updated: 12:13 PM
 
GM
Tropical Storm Warning (View Text) expires 04:34 PM by MFL ()
Coastal waters from East Cape Sable to Chokoloskee FL out 20 NM, in GM
VTEC# 1009 (CON)
Issued: 10:03 AM
Updated: 04:34 PM
 
LH
PZ
OH
Beach Hazard Statement (View Text) expires 09:00 PM by CLE ()
Lorain, Lake, Cuyahoga, in OH
VTEC# 25 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 AM
Updated: 03:03 PM
 
LM
LE
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 09:00 PM by CLE (For more information fro)
Vermilion to Avon Point OH, Willowick to Geneva-on-the Lake OH, Avon Point to Willowick OH, in LE
VTEC# 55 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 AM
Updated: 03:03 PM
 
LM
Small Craft Advisory (View Text) expires 10:00 PM by IWX ()
Michigan City IN to New Buffalo MI, New Buffalo MI to St Joseph MI, in LM
VTEC# 59 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 AM
Updated: 03:09 PM
 
FL
Coastal Flood Statement (View Text) expires 07:00 PM by MFL ()
Coastal Palm Beach County, Coastal Broward County, Coastal Miami Dade County, in FL
VTEC# 6 (CON)
Issued: 06:14 AM
Updated: 04:32 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
Hardee, in FL
VTEC# 7 (CON)
Issued: 04:00 AM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 10:14 AM by MLB (Watson)
Lake, Volusia, in FL
VTEC# 1 (CON)
Issued: 02:06 PM
Updated: 10:14 AM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
DeSoto, in FL
VTEC# 6 (CON)
Issued: 01:00 PM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
Polk, in FL
VTEC# 4 (CON)
Issued: 07:00 PM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
FL
Flood Warning (View Text) expires 02:54 PM by TBW (TBW)
Sarasota, in FL
VTEC# 5 (CON)
Issued: 05:45 AM
Updated: 02:54 PM
 
Download GIS shapefile of current warnings and/or GeoTiff of NEXRAD base reflectivity.

Notes:

  • This application is educational grade and should not be used operationally.
  • Flash Flood Warnings (FFW) do not have VTEC IDs, so those columns are blank for FFWs.
  • The status column is simply the status of the warning. The warning is in 'NEW' state until a SVS is issued, then it goes to 'CON' for continued.
  • Warnings identified by WFO are available after 29 Aug 2004.
  • NEXRAD composite is available since 1 Aug 2003.
  • Prior to the NWS adoption of VTEC, warnings were not expired nor canceled.
  • SVS updates were added in 2005.
  • LSR archive begins 1 Jan 2004.
  • Archive of watches begins 1 Jan 1997.